Necromancy – A Look At The Dark Arts

Swathed in thick smoke and fog, his boney hands worked their practised craft over the elements of his deeply hidden alter.  Black candle wax dripped over the table top and a murmuring chant slipped over his lips and out from under his twill grey hood.  The Necromancer exerted his craft, for what purpose we may never know, but you can be sure he toiled only for sinister gain or secret vengeance.

The above may read more like a B-list Hollywood movie treatment, but in general that scene is indicative of the mental image most anyone would conjure when asked what the word Necromancy means to them.  Culturally universal -or very nearly- the term inspires recollections of old comic books and horror films; it brings to mind cemeteries and corpses, dark and evil places, and men of folk lore, too terrifying to discuss in the company of unwed women and children.

Necromancy is described, typically, as: the practice of attempting to communicate with the spirits of the dead in order to predict or influence the future (Encarta – North America), though this definition has been criticized as too broad to do justice to both the historical and modern meanings of the term.

In antiquity, Necromancy was a simple term used to describe the art of influencing spirits (of virtually any variety) to act on one’s behalf.  It was largely related to Shamanism, and was often used to describe the ritualistic pleadings to spirit ancestors for good tidings, and luck, but it is also accepted that the majority of instances of necromancy in history are related to manipulations of spirit energies for both personal gain and for feudal revenge.  The origin of the word is Greek (nekromantía), but it is believed by some that its true origin predates written history.  Uses of the word and as well as several variants are known throughout the histories of ancient Persia, Chaldea, Etruria and Babylonia, all of which are home to Shamanistic culture and are given to many types of spiritual magic traditions.

Through the Middle-Ages, as divination -a direct undertaking of spiritual manipulation for gain, and a classical example of the ancient definition of necromancy- became known as a demonic practice, by way of the growing influence of the Roman Catholic teachings.  The word as well as all of the rituals and practises covered under the growing umbrella definition of the term necromancy became heretic, even though a significant portion of European cultures retained at least nominal knowledge and proficiency in wards, hexes and divination.

Today, the necromancer is a shrouded and mysterious character, cloaked in evil and aided by demonic powers beyond our comprehension.  Somewhere between the gilded era of the round table knights and the fame of Edgar Cayce, the misinformation of Catholic heresies and the superstitions passed on through the holy conversions of the 15th through 17th centuries, the modern idea of necromancy became a fantastic tale of spiritual reanimation, of directed possession and of demonic worship.

What truth there remains in the original term may be largely irrelevant, as the words we use are always dependent on cultural validation, and for us, our culture defines necromancy in terms of pure evil.  A Necromancer today, is truly a character to avoid, for whether with skilled practise or irreverent ignorance, they toil on behalf of those who would do harm to our existence.

The evolution of a word can have a drastic impact on the reality of its meaning and its influence on other cultural definitions.  Examples of the word and its derivatives can be found in scores in recent and current literature; The Necronomicon, a book with no connection to the historical reality of its name; also the popular idea that a Necromancer is a magical being, who raises the dead and/or consumes the spirits of the recently dead, as made popular by the invention of comic books and video game storylines; even the idea that necromancy is, by nature, an evil practise.

Our fear of death and of holy spiritual reprisal is such that we condemn any use of ancient culture and knowledge wherever it begins to threaten the entrenched and convenient ideas of good and evil, pushing such heresies into sub-cultures and underground teachings, where what was once known to be a necessary part of cultural existence, is now thought of as an abhorrent failing of a fantastical and misguided collection of nonconformists throughout history.

What is the truth about necromancy?  Is it a dark and glossy realm of demons, of spiritual power struggles between mysterious Necromancers and the hereafter?  Is it all a bunch of gothic mumbo jumbo taken too seriously by a few disturbed and socially maladjusted people?  Or is it the evolution of a concept, brought forward through time, in spite of a concerted religious effort to leave it behind?

The reality of it is that Necromancy is all of the above; those who practise their own version of the craft, for whatever gain or end, are equally convinced of its power and influence.  The tradition of necromancy is a truth of our history, it did exist, it was practised, and memories of its effect were carried forward in private teachings, folk lore and superstitions.  As muddied as those divination waters have become, the idea of Necromancy lives on, to what end is up to you.

The Annunaki; Sitchin’s Imaginary Friend

annunakiA 3,600 year elliptical orbit, spinning the blue marbled ball across the solar system, beyond Pluto and further, and then back again, forever hiding itself within the immense voids between planet and star.  Helplessly or willingly, the Annunaki cling to this hurling mirror of another small watery world that lies in a circular orbit around the sun.  Once, in a time long ago, those known as our own Sumerian Gods, the Annunaki ventured off of their world in an ambassadorial mission to Earth.

The Annunaki fooled us though, ambassadors they were not; they came seeking gold and ore and sought to imprison humanity in eternal slavery.  They brought with them their abominations, the Nephilim, and through them began engineering a master race of slave drivers.[1]

All this according to Zecharia Sitchin, and in my current mood, I want so badly to believe; I want to be as certain as he, that during the coming 2012 cleansing, we will be witness to the return of the Annunaki, as their mysterious planet, Nibiru, comes within striking distance of our celestial home.

Alas, I am no such believer.

Zecharia Sitchin, as he’s so obdurately accused, has mistranslated, misinformed and mislead in his study and seriously prolific writings on the subject of Nibiru and the Annunaki.[2]

I could do as so many have done before me; far more learned and qualified people than I have criticised, berated, ridiculed and mocked Sitchin for his, admittedly, wild assertions about Mesopotamian history and the meaning of that history as it relates to new age ideas of creation and human development.

I see Sitchin as an unwitting prophet, his theories and arguments have been planted in the psyche of a generation of new agers, of chanters and mumu wearing star gazers.  He has instilled in them a desire to turn his writings into prophecies, in turn disseminating his flawed ideas into the mainstream of paranormal culture.  He is, if not complicit in this process, at least a catalyst for much of the 2012 Armageddon hype, as confusing and inaccurate as it is.

Sitchin is not directly responsible for any part of the 2012 legend, early Mesoamerica was not his specialty, and near as I can tell, he hasn’t had any notable professional interest in South American history at all.  However, much of his writing has been confused into the 2012 legend, blurring the lines of what is real and what is entirely false.  As detailed in one of my earlier articles, there is some basis in fact for at least a portion of the 2012 mystery, though the facts don’t point to alien invasion or unveiling, they don’t point to Armageddon, and they don’t point (at least directly) to a spiritual ascendance.[3]

What Sitchin has done is weave a broad tapestry of fictional pseudo-science, and hung it in the gallery of the global public.  His stories have compelled the layman reader to steadfast belief without evidence.  They will claim that his so-called expertise in Mesopotamian history and ancient languages is all the evidence anyone should need to believe his theories; that he is a source of academic and spiritual enlightenment and should be believed without question.[4]

On that issue, I leave you to your own devices, as my beliefs are relatively evident.

Where I want to take this piece is along the route to a deeper understanding of the contamination of three main historical-cultural mythologies by the works of people such as Sitchin.

1)   Annunaki

2)   Nibiru

3)   Nephilim

Many readers will be finding a common theme with the above list, naturally coming to believe that there is some innate connection between all three of those characters, and in some ways there is, but that connection is not historical or factual.

While it is true that each idea is rooted in some historical fact, their origins are far from where modern literary fancies have taken them.  Each are, in their own right, significant cultural icons for early Mesopotamian peoples, so much so that two of the three were included in Biblical scripts as truths (though again, without a factual accounting of their meaning).

A God By Any Other Name

The Annunaki, an early Sumerian word generally referring to a caste of Sumerian, Akkadian and Babylonian deities or Gods, variously known to the cultures of Mesopotamia as a convention of deistic entities of varying importance.

According to some scholars, namely Jeremy Black and Anthony Green, the Annunaki were a founding principle in the formation of an underworld class of deities within all of the major Mesopotamian belief systems, possibly composing or leading to the traditional religious opposition of heaven and hell.

It does seem somewhat natural to move from what little we really know about the source of Sumerian religious mythology, to fantastic notions of alien oppressors from another unknown planet, but such an idea is not supported by other factors of Sumerian culture.[5]  Sitchin’s use of the word Annunaki to represent alien protagonists in the story of human evolution is unfounded, and as pointed out by such respected scholars as Michael Heiser, is a simple, yet profound mistranslation.  A mistake so rudimentary, according to Heiser, that one can scarcely believe Sitchin didn’t make it deliberately, so as to found his theorem in the waters of muddied facts.

The Lost Planet

Nibiru is the pet name of an oft-claimed imaginary planet which is rumoured to exist somewhere on the other side of the sun.  As described in the opening paragraph, Nibiru’s orbit is said to be an enormous elliptical arch, sending this planet, which by all accounts is a near perfect analog for Earth, far beyond the boundaries of the known solar system, past Pluto and into the cold darkness of deep space before finally returning to the warming embrace of our Sun’s rays some 3,600 years later.

One doesn’t need to be an astrophysicist to see a fatal flaw in that line of scattered reasoning.  Before we even consider the popular notion that that the Annunaki are the ancient inhabitants of Nibiru, we can count certain parts of the Nibiru myth right out of the picture.

The Earth’s orbit around the sun, which takes exactly 365.242199 mean solar days, or 1 sidereal year, keeps us at a cozy distance of approximately 150 million kilometres from the sun.[6]  That distance is one very important factor in this debate, and in the raging debate about whether life could possibly exist on any other planet in our solar system.  For you see, it is that distance that allows us to exist; if our orbit were to take us any closer to the sun, we would be incinerated, any further away and we’d be popsicles.

So, for a planet that is purported to be a suitable analog for Earth, containing comparable amounts of liquid water, a heated core and cyclical weather patterns that are dependent on gravity and temperature, Nibiru is up the creek without a paddler.

nephilimA 3,600 year elliptical orbit would mean that Nibiru is frozen solid for nearly ¾ of its planetary life, thawing only during the leg of its journey that brings it within 150 million kilometres of the Sun.

Is it possible for the planet to exist under these cosmic conditions?  Yes, but it seems impossible for an advanced and comparable species of humanoid life to have evolved on a planet with such drastically changing surface conditions.  Even if life on Nibiru (suspending our disbelief for a moment to take for granted the fact that Nibiru does exist) were able to evolve through the use of geothermal or some other heretofore unknown means of remaining animate in such frozen conditions, so much of that life’s potential energy would be spent just trying to exist, that off world travel might likely be inconsequential.  Though, and this is yet another leap, if life did find a way to evolve into a sentient humanoid form, and that humanoid species saw fit to leave Nibiru and visit Earth, it seems likely that our consistently temperate climate would be incompatible with that species own biological requirements.

Again, none of this speaks to the possibility of an as yet undiscovered planet, called Nibiru existing in our solar system.  It could be said that such a long orbit, relative to the human capability to observe and map our planetary neighbours, might have gone unnoticed, especially if the vast majority of that orbital path lies beyond our ability to view.  However, all things considered, it does seem somewhat unlikely considering that among the eight planets of our solar system, not one holds an orbit even remotely similar to that described as the orbit of Nibiru.[7]

The popular alternative to the idea that Nibiru exists in a wide elliptical orbit, is that it exists in a circular orbit on the opposite side of the sun, at a comparable distance and speed as the Earth, so that never the twain shall meet; but this is not an idea credited to Sitchin.  And to quote the inimitable Bertrand Russell:

“If I were to suggest that between the Earth and Mars there is a china teapot revolving about the sun in an elliptical orbit, nobody would be able to disprove my assertion provided I were careful to add that the teapot is too small to be revealed even by our most powerful telescopes. But if I were to go on to say that, since my assertion cannot be disproved, it is an intolerable presumption on the part of human reason to doubt it, I should rightly be thought to be talking nonsense. If, however, the existence of such a teapot were affirmed in ancient books, taught as the sacred truth every Sunday, and instilled into the minds of children at school, hesitation to believe in its existence would become a mark of eccentricity and entitle the doubter to the attentions of the psychiatrist in an enlightened age or of the Inquisitor in an earlier time.” [8]

The Sons of God and the Daughters of Men

The Ancient Astronaut Theory, while not credited to Zecharia Sitchin alone, is the leading culprit in the issue of Sitchin’s current level of fame.  His writings on the Ancient Astronauts are epic, and though they are entertaining, they should be taken with a slight more than just a single grain of salt.

Sitchin, and many of his devout followers, would like you to believe that the Annunaki, some 450,000 years ago, travelled to Earth in search of gold (for whatever reason).  Upon arriving, they apparently found prehistoric man and decided that our Neanderthal brethren were suitable for enslavement in their gold mines.  This wasn’t enough, however, and the Annunaki undertook to create a Neanderthal/Annunaki hybrid through super advanced genetic manipulation, the result of which was the Nephilim.

It’s no mere coincidence that Sitchin chose the personification of the biblical giants as the product of his Ancient Astronaut theory; the Nephilim mystery has confounded biblical scholars, linguists and historians for centuries.  The Nephilim are mentioned several times throughout the Bible, in accounts that seem too realistic to ignore.  But where does the connection to the Annunaki and Nibiru come from?  Your guess is as good as mine.

It would seem that Sitchin has fabricated a connection, based on false logic, and ultimately on his own mistaken translation of the word Annunaki.  Biblical reference to the Nephilim suggests that this race of giants was the offspring of fallen angels, as they mated with human women.  Their resulting progeny were said to be giants, whose size and strength were renowned.

Ok, I’ll admit that there is a similarity to the story lines and that with Sitchin’s subtle suggestion, we can see how the Sons of God (the fallen angel progenitors of the Nephilim) bear some superficial resemblance to the described Annunaki, but unfortunately, that’s as far as the connection goes.

No where else are the Sons of God mentioned, no where else is there any information about who or what they were, or if they were even anything more than the metaphorical representation of human royalty from the perspective of the Bible’s author(s).  To Sitchin, this false connection to the Nephilim of the Bible is a very happy misconception of the truth, one that serves to solidify his position and the background of his theory.

Could there have been an extraterrestrial race of ancient astronauts who visited Earth from the sometimes near, but typically far away planet Nibiru?  Yes, there could have been, but evidence does not support that case.  Even critical examination of the story at hand denies the Annunaki their place as the founders of humanity.

Gold, as a basic and relatively common ore (in contrast to other elements found both on and off the Earth) seems a strangely human pursuit.  The idea that the Annunaki would travel interstellar distances to mine something as superficial as gold is a little difficult to swallow, though if you look a little deeper, that pill gets even harder to take.

Taking for granted all of the things we have to, to get to a point where we can hypothesis on the Annunaki’s motives and practises, lets consider that in order to get here (Earth), they would have to have constructed a vessel capable of travelling some multiple trillions of kilometres, with the same limits on interstellar travel as we face.  Quite a feat indeed.  Next consider that once they arrived, and their fancy turned to our prehistoric ancestors, they concocted a complex and technologically advanced method for cross breeding with early humans.  Again, bravo to the Annunaki for their achievements.  So, with all of their technological know-how, their prowess with mechanical engineering and biological manipulation, they couldn’t find a better way to mine gold than through manual (slave) labour?

I apologise for leading you down that garden path, but now that you’re here, isn’t it nice?

You see, all of this boils down to a story, based on one misplaced assumption.  The Annunaki were Sumerian deities; they were not a real race of beings, they were not our intergalactic neighbours.  They did not create the Nephilim (if the Nelhilim even truly existed) and they did not come from a hidden planet that spends so much time beyond the reach of our Sun’s rays that its would remain a solid ball of ice for nearly the entire time it would ever have taken for any life to form on its surface.

I’m not interested in beating an already dead horse, but it seems that this one just won’t stay down.


[1] Source: The 12th Planet (Earth Chronicles Part 1), Zecharia Sitchin

[2] See:, by Michael S. Heiser

[3] Paranormal People: 2012; The End of the World…or is it?

[4] See:

[5] Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia; An Illustrated Dictionary By Jeremy Black and Anthony Green

[6] Source: Wikipedia article: Earth’s Orbit;’s_orbit

[7] Eight planets, not including Pluto, and not taking into account the many asteroids, comets and meteoric fragments whose orbits take them on elliptical paths through and out of our solar system

[8] Russell’s Teapot / The Celestial Teapot, from the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)’s_teapot

2012; The End of the World…or is it?

2012Ok, hang on folks; we’re going for a ride, a wild ride that may leave us wondering if tomorrow’s really going to come, or if the hype is all in our head after all.

December 21st (or the 23rd) in the year 2012 (either a Friday or a Sunday in the Gregorian calendar) is a day most everyone is anxiously awaiting.  It’s a day some fear with all their soul, others look forward to it as a day of ascendance, most wait with subtle curiosity and a nagging nervousness somewhere in the back of their mind.

The truth is that most people aren’t entirely sure what to expect, whether that be a product of their own ignorance, or the result of the volumes upon volumes of misinformation, mistranslation, speculation and conjecture flooding the internet on this subject.

Officially there is no official story, the establishment of mainstream science wholly rejects the prophecy as pseudoscience and lends no credibility to any one interpretation over another, though some critics suggest that many believers actually find credence in this scientific rejection of the theory, citing that science is the cause of this coming spiritual cleansing; ‘of course they [scientists] don’t understand it’.

A little cursory research and reading will lead you to a multitude of explanations for the theory, and even more than a few alternate theories for the end of the Mayan Calendar.  The problem, as you’ll soon find, is that there are so many theories, arguments and ideas on the subject, that one finds it difficult to believe one over another anyway.

Invariably, flocks of people have set up camp amongst their favourite theorists, and each group is slowly (or quickly as the case may be) gaining the support of certain sect’s of popular culture.  It seems the lines have been drawn, the debate is fuelled and the battle has begun.

In any event, there are some common themes, if you will, running through the various interpretations of this prophecy.

According to the Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar, Friday December 21, 2012 is the end…but the end of what?   The end of that particular calendar?  The end of the world?  The end of mankind?  Or just the end of time (as though that’s somehow less severe than the others)?

Now, while those questions hang in the air for a bit, let’s understand something here.  The origin of this legend is not based in academic fact; the Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar continues to count on well after 2012, the calendar itself shows no specific hiccup, pause or end to time, nor to the earth or her unendingly curious inhabitants.  What does end on that date, or the 23rd depending on your Gregorian calendar calculations, is the thirteenth baktun (essentially the Mayan equivalent to a millennia).  Scientists and several Mayan historians agree that there are no quantifiable and/or original theories from the Mayan era that suggest an end to anything other than the baktun.

Having dealt with the rational view of this issue, let’s look at what the “prophets” say isgoing to happen on that date.  Unfortunately for some, I have neither the patience nor the time to examine and lay out all of the 2012 theories, as there are many, but I will offer the leading ideas before we move onto my own reasons for why 2012 is a less of a threat than indicated.

Only two items in the Mayan Corpus (the body of scholarly writings from the Mayan era) out of the many hundreds of texts, carvings and documents that exist, are thought to deal with 2012, both of which have been defaced by time and vandals, though in spite of this, some historians believe that the Tortuguero and the Chilam Balam both discuss the prophesised events of 2012.  Roughly translated these works are believed to say the following:

“The thirteenth baktun will end on 4 ajaw, the 3rd of Uniiw [believed to be December 21];black will occur and it will be the decent of Bolon Yookte K’uh to the great.”

Bolon Yookte K’uh is believed to be the name of a Mayan God, though no one knows what is meant by his descending to the great.  In all, this theory, if that’s what we can call it, indicates that something will happen on this date, involving an as yet unknown God, who will do something…possibly falling from the heavens.

Now, no end-of-the-world prophecy would be complete without a new age twist in the works, and the 2012 myth is no exception.

Perhaps the most widely held prophecy for 2012 is that of a global shift in consciousness.  Depending on who you talk to, or whose book you read, you’ll get a different story about how this shift in consciousness will occur, let alone why.

There are those who believe that this shift will be a period of enlightenment and transcendence for only those people, who either deserve it, or who have achieved a certainly level of spirituality; naturally, the enemy of this enlightenment is western society and culture.  Others believe that we are facing a stage of spiritual evolution, or a mutation of consciousness; this theory often involves an outside influence, whether extraterrestrials, inter-dimensional beings or unseen cosmic forces.  Those who argue for this particular theory often cite UFO sightings and encounters, and crop circles as evidence for their ideas.

Third on our list comes from the doomsayers of our time, though they certainly aren’t alone in their ideas and fears.  In this category ( I hesitate to call it a category as some of these theories are so far fetched they don’t really deserve the attention) are traditional apocalyptic ideas of the end of the world, as well as cosmic alignment theories and even planetary collision theories.

It’s no surprise that religious theorists have latched onto this phenomenon of belief and spun their own versions of how 2012 will be the end of days.  Even though there is no connection whatsoever to any biblical prediction, many claim that the time of Christ will come to an end on this fateful day, and we will be plunged into Hell. (This is me, rolling my eyes.)

Seemingly to aid the Christian apocalypse theory, some fringe astronomers and cosmologists have come up with theories of flattering scale in an attempt to explain what might happen in 2012.  Though, be careful to read that correctly.  These theories were engineered in reverse, they were dreamt up to provide a vehicle to house our irrational fear of 2012, and they are not historically founded.

andy_lloyd_nibiru_pathOne such theory is that a cosmic alignment will occur on that date which will cause magnetic and gravitational forces in our galaxy to rip our planet apart.  Another is that during this alignment, the hidden and as yet undiscovered planet Nibiru, a twin of our Earth trapped in a mirroring orbit on the opposite side of the sun, will fall from its orbital path and collide with the Earth.

You may be able to sense my growing distain toward these theories, but regardless of what I may think, many people are steadfast in their confidence that one of the above catastrophes will occur on December 21st (or 23rd) 2012, and as I hope to demonstrate below, my opinion may be entirely irrelevant.

The Law of Attraction…while I think Einstein might have argued against calling this concept a law, the popular definition of this term is sweeping the globe as a fundamental principal of personal empowerment.  Generally speaking, the Law of Attraction is the basic idea behind Intention Manifestation, or the idea that the universe (a term used loosely to describe the cosmic forces that bind us all together), can and does grant wishes; that we can, through guided visualisation and positive reinforcement, create our own realities.

yaegerIntention Manifestation is not a new idea, some claim that it’s a product of ancient Hindi teachings, others that it has a Buddhist origin, whatever the case, it is widely taught and practised by self-help gurus, guides, counsellors and even Christian ministers etc (the idea of prayer is thought to be an extension of the same principal).  When a person fine tunes and uses their own intention (their will, combined with their needs and emotions), they can manifest or create the object of their intention in reality.  Basically, make a wish, and want it, truly and honestly, and the universe will provide.

So here’s were my monologue is going to get a little strange for some of you.

If we accept the prophecies of 2012 to be true, as so many people have, then the Law of Attraction isn’t really such an out there theory either.  Though, I would suspect some would argue against that logic.  In any event, as I follow this line of thinking, I can’t help but notice that in nearly every person I know, and probably in every person on the planet (with certain exceptions), there is a deep seeded desire to survive.

No one wants to die (again, with certain exceptions), and I suspect that even without knowing, nearly every person on the planet is able to contribute to our species survival, even beyond the potential catastrophes of 2012, by manifesting that reality for themselves.

I know, we’re getting bogged down here, lets get past it.

If intention manifestation and the law of attraction are true, even in small part, the effect those principals could have on an apocalyptic event, one that has been foretold by say…the 2012 prophecies, could be to cancel out the possibility of the event from happening at all.

I told you it was going to be a wild ride.  In any event, both of these ideas, the Law of Attraction and any one of the 2012 prophecies, is just as likely as the other to be true.  Belief in one certainly doesn’t require belief in the other, but as much as they are not complimentary to each other, they are potentially related, I suppose it all depends on your perspective.

Nephilim – An Ancient Race of Giants, or Alien-Human Hybrids

The Nephilim, born of the Son’s of God and the daughter’s of men, giants in our history, fallen angels who suffered the wrath of The Almighty in the Great Flood; were the Nephilim a race of archangels, intent on mixing their seed with the lines of God’s children?

Some would have you believe just that, though I choose to believe differently.

Genesis 6:1-7

1 When men began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, 2 the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose. 3 Then the LORD said, “My Spirit will not contend with man forever, for he is mortal ; his days will be a hundred and twenty years.” 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown. 5 The LORD saw how great man’s wickedness on the earth had become, and that every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time. 6 The LORD was grieved that he had made man on the earth, and his heart was filled with pain. 7 So the LORD said, “I will wipe mankind, whom I have created, from the face of the earth—men and animals, and creatures that move along the ground, and birds of the air—for I am grieved that I have made them.” NIV

Essentially, the above verse is an explanation of how the “Sons of God�?, believed to be fallen angels, bred themselves into the race of men, creating superhuman giants known as the Nephilim.  Many have accepted the idea that the “Sons of God�? were fallen angels, though in a time when spiritual faith is faltering, some are looking for alternate explanations of this fantastic tale.

The Nephilim seem to be presented in a somewhat matter-of-fact way, they are mentioned as a species by name in the above verse, and their presence is identified in several other Biblical verses, such as:

Numbers 13:31-33 (Originally and incorrectly cited as Deuteronomy)

31 But the men that went up with him said, We be not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than we.  32 And they brought up an evil report of the land which they had searched unto the children of Israel, saying, The land, through which we have gone to search it, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the people that we saw in it are men of a great stature.  33 And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.

The Nephilim themselves are an interesting study, and discoveries have been made in modern time, which point to the truth of their existence. For instance; in the late 1950’s, during road construction in the Euphrates Valley of south-east Turkey, many tombs containing the remains of giants were uncovered. At the sites the leg bones were measured to be 120 cms (47.24 inches). Joe Taylor, Director of Mt. Blanco Fossil Museum, was commissioned to sculpt the human femur. This giant stood some 14-16 ft tall.  In his book Fossils Facts & Fantasies, Joe Taylor cites several accounts of giant human skeletons or depictions being discovered, from Egypt, Italy, Patagonia in Argentina, and the western US.

In spite of the compelling and growing body of evidence to support the existence of the Nephilim, I remain more interested in their origins than their presence.  The details of the Biblical account resemble stories of extraterrestrial crossbreeding and abduction.  They resemble whispers of government conspiracies involving cover-up and DNA modification.  They resemble the popular fear of Alien interbreeding as a form of invasion.

While I’m not prone to such fear tactics normally, the similarity to the core principals of the story is striking.  The “Sons of God�?, bred themselves freely with human women, and ultimately created a new race of enormous, superhuman beings, and the question burns, who, or what, were the Sons of God?

The very idea that the writers of these Biblical verses, recognised the danger in interbreeding between humans and the mystery beings, insofar as they incorporated an ultimate punishment for the invasion, is astonishing.  Not surprisingly, I do not accept the wrath of God explanation, but I see through the metaphor and call to your attention to the fact that once the interbreeding began, the Sons of God were not mentioned again, much the same way as our own encounters with extraterrestrials remain shrouded in mystery and conspiracy.

The very metaphor involved in the term Sons of God, immediately suggests that these beings were not of this world, and the writers were aware enough to know that they came from the heavens, or what we now know to be outer space.  The fact that they were attributed as a relation to God may denote that they possessed abilities or qualities, which were deemed to be godlike, quite possibly the result of technological advancement, or even biological qualities that were unique to their species.

The result of their mingling with humanity, the Nephilim, seems to suggest an intent, a desire to create a stronger, possibly better form of life.  Though one could argue that the Nephilim were hardly better, since there is no trace of their genetic influence now…or is there?

I will leave you with the notion that roughly 97% of the human genome is unidentified, and in an interbreeding program, only a small fraction of parent DNA need be passed along in order for significant changes to begin taking effect in the population at large.

To learn more about the Nephilim and the biblical history behind their story, buy a copy of The Lost Book of Enochfrom our Recommended Reading section (all transactions are safe and secure through

Ogopogo; The Granddaddy of All Sea Monsters

Artists Rendering of a Plesiosaur

While Nessie and Champ steal thunder and spotlight, these mysterious and famously shy creatures were foreshadowed by the granddaddy of all lake monsters.

Ogopogo, of Okanagan Lake in British Columbia Canada, which lies nestled in the BC interior very near Kelowna, just north of the US/Canada border, is actually the oldest known case of a large seafaring cryptid.  Having had its public debut in 1926, seven years ahead of the world famous Scottish Loch Ness Monster, Oggie qualifies as the first such cryptozoological mystery known to man, which is strengthened by archival evidence that it may have been discovered as early as 1872.

As with all cryptid legends, grainy photographs and shaky, blurry film are all that monster hunters and cryptozoologists have to go on when staking their claim on the shores of Okanagan Lake.  The first such evidence is famously known as the Folden Film, named after the man who chanced to capture the world’s first look at this mysterious beast, Mr. Art Folden.  The Folden Film is notoriously difficult to obtain, as its current owner maintains tight copyright restrictions on its duplication and publication, and through some cursory research, it seems the only recent showings of the film have been through large television network specials on the subject.

While the Folden Film is the earliest known film evidence of Oggie, his was certainly not the first sighting of the creature.  On September 16, 1926, a caravan of beachgoers, occupying some 30 vehicles parked along the Okanagan Mission Beach, were privy to the largest group sighting of any cryptid.  The report of this sighting deserves further study, but it is said that the witnesses offered descriptions that were surprisingly consistent and cohesive.

A 1964 photo showing characteristic Oggie Ripples

A 1964 photo showing characteristic Oggie Ripples

Many such sightings have occurred over the years, and the large number of credible reports has led some journalists to declare the Ogopogo legend to be true, based solely on the volume of sightings.

The truth of the story, or indeed, truth of Oggie’s existence, remains in question, but only to the degree that credible photographic or biological evidence has yet to be presented for analysis.  Considering the widespread acceptance of sea-monster legends, there seems to be a serious lack of comprehensive evidence to back up such a position.  One might say that there is more evidence to support the existence of Bigfoot, than of a giant Sea Monster, though such an argument is unnecessary.

The legend of Ogopogo has been a boon to the population of Kelowna and Lake Okanagan; the lake, known for world class fishing and its many beaches and islands, is actually less a lake than a river tributary.  Its winding flows and beautiful Canadian forests are the perfect backdrop for such a colourful tale, or is it the other way around?

If one performs a Google search on the term Ogopogo, it isn’t long before one can see a connection between tourism and the legend of Ogopogo.  Resorts, campsites and boat tours fill the area with amateur monster hunters and enthusiasts, pouring out of province and even out of country cash into the pockets of local businesses and municipalities.  Oggie is big business, and the protection of his mystery is just as important to the locals as the lake itself.

Through that same Google search, eventually one will come across the several folksy songs that have been written about Ogopogo and carried through the generations.  Oggie has become a cultural icon to the people of British Columbia, and as such the credibility of more recent sightings comes into question.  Whenever a population stands to benefit on a fiscal level from the continued existence of and belief in such a legend, one must always consider that bias in the face of all evidence presented from that point on.

ogopogoNow, I don’t claim to debunk the evidence presented on behalf of Ogopogo, of which there is a veritable mountain, what I’m claiming is that the motives of the persons coming forward with evidence at this point in the commercial development of Lake Okanagan, is suspect.  Oggie may well exist, he may be as some researchers have claimed, a form of primitive serpentine whale (Basilosaurus Cetoides) left over from some era in prehistory, or he may simply be a moss covered log, come to life with the imagination of those less familiar with life in the British Columbian wilderness.

All things considered, Ogopogo is a hallmark case of cryptid mystery and cultural folk lore, and its value is immeasurable regardless of the evidence in hand.  The legend and the mystery will endure, as will the commercial value of such legend, but one thing is certain, monster hunters, paranormal enthusiast and vacationing families alike, will continue to be intrigued by the idea of capturing footage of Lake Okanagan’s Ogopogo Monster, and because of their passion, we will never be short of fantastic tales, blurred photos and shaky video of the oldest Sea Monster around.

Bring the legend of Ogopogo to your own bookshelf…buy a copy of In Search of Ogopogo: Sacred Creature of the Okanagan Waters from the Paranormal People Bookstore today!

Bringing Sasquatch Home; A Comparative Study

Cryptozoology, being the study of unknown creatures, is a strange world of speculation, assumption, wild theorising and an enormous catalogue of potential candidates of interest all around the globe.

From the more mainstream researcher, there are innumerable species of bacteria and even insects to discover.  After all, in written history we have only barely breached the surface of potential microbial life on earth; but to some, their quarry is a slight bit larger than a single celled organism.

The largest category of cryptozoology today is known as the classification of ABE’s, or anomalous biological entities, and within that category are some of the strangest things you’ve ever heard of.  Among such famous company as Ogopogo and the Loch Ness Monster, are creatures as rare as the Montauk Monster and as elusive as the Chupacabra; but one creature who perhaps resides at the top of the proverbial food chain in the crypto-zoo, and who has captured the attention of the entire world, is simultaneously regarded as the least likely animal to exist, and the most believed in mega-fauna cryptid the world over.

I am of course referring to Bigfoot, though to be fair, that name is a Hollywood monstrosity and bears no resemblance to the global scope Bigfoot phenomenon.

As it stands today, there are more than two dozen different wild-man legends in as many countries around the world, including such places as Sumatra, Vietnam and Afghanistan.  Each legend carries with it the cultural bias of the region from which it originates, and while there are some tangible differences, the similarities between the various legends is striking.

Perhaps the two most famous wild man legends are, predictably, the Sasquatch of North America and the Himalayan Yeti, each of which are known by several names on their own.  But lesser known to the western world are the likes of the Orang Mawas of Malaysia, the Amomongos of the Philippines, Florida’s Skunk Ape and even the Woodwose of medieval Europe.  Nearly all of the legendary accounts of these creatures culminate in the description of a man-beast, standing larger than a normal man, covered in hair to some degree and smelling of a horrid stench that almost defies explanation.

In spite of all the harm that Hollywood has done to the cause of finding and documenting wild men in various parts of the world, the legends carry on.  Wild-man folk lore may be the most prevalent cryptozoological phenomenon on the planet.  Even in the relatively confined continental space of the United States, there exists a wide range of wild-men theories and traditions.  From the traditional north-western idea of Bigfoot or Sasquatch (as named by First Nations people of North America) to the Ohio Grassman and the Fouke Monster of Boggy Creek/Fouke, Arkansas, there is no shortage of material to investigate.

In fact, the existence of Sasquatch traditions of the First Nations people in both the US and Canada, along side Chinese, Japanese and other eastern European legends, dates back prior to written history and is often a root cultural meme to whichever region developed the legend.

In anthropological terms, there may be a lot to reconcile for these wild man theories, such as breeding populations, food sources, hibernation, dens and nesting, origin and, depending on the specific legend in question, physical capabilities (i.e. the Solomon Island giants).  For many people, there is little doubt that there exists a creature, living in the wild parts of the world, who is half ape, half man and whose survival is dependent on our not being able to find them; but for an almost equal number of people there are just too many holes in the story.

In answer to this discrepancy, I have composed a comparative study of four such legends from four vastly different areas of the world.  What is striking, is the fact that, even though these traditions, which in each case originate in cultural periods prior to any western popular influence, and are from divergent cultures in what could be called the four corners of the globe, they are remarkably similar in description and overall sentiment.

Barmanou – Afghanistan / Pakistan

Through my research I was somewhat surprised to find such a wild man legend coming from this area of the world; I’m not sure exactly why, I suppose it was a bias of my own relating to the on-going conflicts in this region, causing me to wrongly assume that cultures in that region would be prone to discount such ideas in favour of more traditionally religious explanations, but regardless of my own prejudices, there exists such a wild man in what was once known as ancient Mesopotamia.

drawing3Barmanou, also presented as Barmanu, as derived from the Sandskrit term Ban-Manus which is loosely translated as Man of the Forest, is a long held legend of a very tall and hairy man residing in the mountains of northern Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Typical physical characeristics of Barmanou are strikingly similar to the North American Bigfoot, 8-10 feet in height, heavy set, and with brown/reddish fur (though the story is often told as though it wears animal skins instead of having its own fur), most surprising is the mention of a terrible smell associated to the creature, as is common to most other wild man legends.

A notable difference to this legend from most others is the inclusion of violent interaction with indigenous people.  It is said, quite specifically, that the Barmanou is known to abduct village women in an attempt to mate with them, which may have been added to the original legend as a morality warning to young girls, given the patriarchal and dogmatic nature of the societies in question.

  • Height- 8-10 feet
  • Weight- Estimated at 400-600lbs
  • Hair/Complexion- Thick fur, reddish to light brown, possibly augmented or replaced by cut and dried animal skins.
  • Common Characteristics- Elusive and xenophobic, terrible smell like rotten eggs, violent if surprised or cornered

Fear Liath – Scotland

Of the many, many cryptozoological specimens coming from the storied and colourful country of Scotland, Fear Liath, or as it is commonly known, ‘The Greyman’ may be the most likely candidate for actual scientific discovery.

Originally coined the Am Fear Laith Mòr, or The Grey Man of Ben MacDhui, the Greyman is yet another example of a wild man legend offering seemingly similar yet unrelated description to the Western Bigfoot.  It is said that Fear Laith haunts the summit and passes of Ben MacDhui, the highest peak of the Cairngorns and the second highest peak in Scotland.  Tellings of the stories of the Greyman, as might be expected in Scotland, are varied, but a common theme runs through the legend.  A creature, though often presented as a mere presence on the mountain, more than 10 feet tall, and covered in soft grey fur is said to be guarding the peak of Ben MacDhui.  Climbers have often described a feeling of being watched, and several have told of direct encounters with the beast.  Through this research I was not able to determine if there is a smell associated with Greyman, but it does appear that the Greyman legend is very similar to and possibly connected to the 13th century Woodwose legend of England and western Europe.

  • Height- Over 10 fooot
  • Weight- Unknown (estimated at more than 500lbs)
  • Hair/Complexion- Soft grey fur covering it’s entire body, light skinned face and hands.
  • Common Characteristics- known to make loud sounds and growl (i.e. bang sticks on nearby trees), said to give off an ominous feeling of forboding (almost psychicly)

Isnashi – South America

As tends to be the case with the verbal traditions of South America, many legends get distorted over time, but as with even the strangest stories, the Isnashi bears a resemblance to a creature many believe is real life neighbour of humanity.

Isnashi, also known as Mapinguary and Ucumar (roughly translated as the roaring animal or the fetid beast), is largely described as a giant sloth, though many reports contradict that description maintaining that it is bipedal and much more ape-like than a sloth.  Various local legends exclaim that the beast is arrow and bullet proof, due to its thick and long magical fur, and some tell of the beast looking like a Cyclops with a gaping, fanged mouth in the middle of its belly.

One thing these stories always agree on is a distinct and terrible odour caused by the beast; warriors describe it as often sporting a cloud of swarming flies due to the pungent smell.

For those even remotely familiar with the thick and harsh jungle of South America, it isn’t altogether fantastic to think that there are several species of minor or even mega-fauna cryptids hiding in the rain forests, in fact some people think there are whole tribes of humans that live as yet undiscovered deep in the jungle.

  • Height- Typically taller than 12 feet, but known to walk in a hunched over manner, so some estimates are as short as 7 feet.
  • Weight- Estimated through footprints to be greater than 600lbs
  • Hair/Complexion- Covered in coarse fur, grey-brown to drak brown, dark skinned
  • Common Characteristics- Sloth like, slow moving unless frightened, foul smelling (though not necessarily like rotten eggs), fur is said to be magical and able to stop bullets/arrows, long arms, either bi-optical or cycloptical, and occassioanlly described as having a large, gaping and fanged mouth in its midesction.

abominable_caveNuk-luk – Northwest Territories (Canada)

Nahani Butte in the Canadian Northwest Territories is the reported home to Nuk-luk , translated from Inuit as ‘Man of the Bush’, and the only real difference between Nuk-luk and Sasquatch might be that local legend paints the Man of the Bush to be much more like a Neanderthal type creature than an ape, though it is purported to have long hair, a broad and stocky musculature and an odd smell.  There is indication in early reports of Nuk-luk that it has adapted a culture of its own, wearing crude boots and using stone tools, but there is very little real information due to the extremely remote locale.

The earliest known report of Nuk-luk outside of Inuit culture was in 1964, but local Eskimo stories suggest that the creature(s) have been living in the area of Nahani Butte for more than 3000 years.

  • Height- Between 6 and 8 feet, no taller than 10 foot
  • Weight- Estimated via sightings at 300-400lbs
  • Hair/Complexion- Fine but thick hair over it’s back and arms, medium light coloured skin
  • Common Characteristics- Strong smell always associated with sightings, known to have adapted the use of loin cloths and other skins, as well as stone tools such as hammers and crude cutting implements

Though this is a comparison of only four out of more than 24 widely known examples, and even more lesser known wild-man traditions, there is already an easily recognised similarity between these descriptions.  From a certain distance, it appears that there is plenty of evidence to conclude that all wild-man legends are derived from the same species of uknown early hominid, but on closer inspection the differences aren’t always easily reconciled.

Ultimately what we come up with here is a collection of sketchy, strange and obviously fairytale like stories about hairy bogeymen and missing link hominids around the world.  And I admit that there need be no specific link between each case for there to be scientific merit in seeking the truth of each legend, but when one lines up all of the various wild man traditions, it’s difficult not to see a resemblance between them.  Does that resemblance have a deeper meaning, or is it just a superficial connection?  Some would say we may never know, but in the case of Sasquatch, I’m prone to believe we still have much to learn about the extent and variety of hominid life on earth.

The Evolution of Bigfoot; A Rebuttal to the Sceptical View

Since the presentation of the Patterson Video from October 20th, 1967, Bigfoot mania has swept the globe.  As a cultural phenomenon, or more accurately, an urban legend, Bigfoot’s popularity has skyrocketed, since that cold autumn day, when two business associates, Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin, happened to encounter what is arguably the most controversial anthropological find of modern science.

As possibly the most famous entry in the anthropological category of ‘Cryptid’, the Sasquatch, or more commonly, Bigfoot, has garnered more than its fair share of attention, both from believers and sceptics alike.

Among the sceptical arguments against the existence of this oft-described monster of the woods, is the pseudo-scientific claim that such a creature, if it could have evolved in the first place, could not survive for such a long period of time and remain unknown to modern science.

What I hope to show in this article is the fundamental flaw in the above reasoning, and to demonstrate, through an abstract examination of the currently known ethos of the Sasquatch, that it is not only possible for such a creature to exist and to flourish, but that it may even be likely.  In other words, I hope to debunk the debunkers.

Why have I taken this relatively safe position of attempting to discredit the sceptics, instead of purporting to support the supporters?  In short, the paradox of my own scepticism does not escape me.  At present, we, as a community of both sceptics and believers, have no real footholds with which to make our climb to the lofty height of proven correct.  No live sample, no dead carcass, no impressively clear footage or photography and no unimpeachable testimony exist in support of either camp; but in spite of this relatively clear fact, sceptics continue to ridicule, berate and dismiss the opinions, evidence and claims of supporters.

Is it so far fetched to conceive of an as yet undiscovered bi-pedal hominid species that is large in stature, covered in ape like hair, and which is, apparently, intelligent enough to know that humanity should be avoided, even at the risk of injury and conflict?  A growing number of enthusiasts, cryptozoologists, anthropologists and laymen would answer that question with a passionate ‘no’, though an equally large number of sceptics would intelligently argue the opposite.

The basis of the sceptical claim is typically as follows: The scope of humanity is such that every corner of the earth is occupied by humans, or has been with certain fluctuation; (often adding in the following caveat) those small pockets of territory that are as yet undisturbed by human populations are either too small to support a breeding population of large mammals and to simultaneously allow them to remain hidden from scientific observation, or are environmentally unsuitable for a sustained mammalian population.

Admittedly, there is a fairly obvious logic to that argument, even though there are factual flaws.  Not the least of which is the fact that there are stretches of undisturbed arboreal forest in northern Canada that are nearly the size of the State of Texas.  Now obviously this doesn’t account for reported Sasquatch populations residing outside of Canada, though it does illustrate the type of logical misinformation used to debunk issues like Bigfoot.

The entire argument of Sasquatch real-estate may be moot anyway, as I shall try to illustrate.  If we look at Bigfoot in evolutionary terms, we may be able to come up with a plausible theory to refute the sceptical claim.

I am hesitant to provide any preliminary qualification to this argument; for fear that I would do more damage to the natural selection theories on which I base my own theory in the process.  It would be best if the reader had an understanding of both Darwinism and gene selection theory, but it’s not entirely necessary.

Essentially, my argument is a simple abstraction of natural selection on the genetic level, which can explain firstly, how a creature such as Sasquatch could evolve, and secondly, how it could have adapted to survive, as a species, in relatively small breeding pools.

Let’s first look at the possibility of a large bi-pedal hominid evolving to the currently reported state of Bigfoot.  This isn’t much of a stretch really, after all, we exist, the great apes exist, and lower hominids exist.  All such species have evolved in various climates, in various population environments and with varying degrees of success (genetically speaking).  When considering whether Bigfoot could have evolved from our common ancestry, it’s interesting to learn that the great apes of Africa held the very same cryptid title until their discovery in the late 19th century.  British and American scientists believed the Gorilla to be a myth, until the first corpse was presented for examination, though no reasonable person would now say that apes don’t exist.

So, to answer the first part of the sceptical argument, yes, it most certainly is possible that a Sasquatch-like creature could have evolved from our common ancestry.

If we have reasonably established that Sasquatch evolution is possible, then we should now look at how such a creature might survive and remain hidden from science.

One aspect of the Sasquatch ethos that sets it apart from all other primates (except possibly us) is it’s intrinsic intelligence.  The reasoning, memory and forethought often displayed by Bigfoot in well documented encounters, suggests that the species has developed a ‘big brain’, more than likely similar to the human brain.  It would seem on first examination that the Sasquatch brain is less developed than the human brain, though it may simply be that it developed along different evolutionary requirements. Language and reason may be available to Bigfoot, but in different forms than we see in ourselves.

All that would have been required for a big brain to have evolved in a second species (second may not be the correct ordering of big brain development, as some believe that whales and dolphins were the first to cross that finish line), is the survival and propagation of genes within the evolution of the Sasquatch, which tended to favour individuals with greater capacity for learning and reasoning.  Meaning that the individual Sasquatch who held those traits was more likely to survive to a breeding age than those who did not, and therefore was more likely to pass on his genes to the next generation, thereby enabling successive generations to further adapt that particular genetic advantage, eventually becoming a species characteristic.

Incidentally, all other commonly held Bigfoot traits would be passed on in the same manner, and for the purposes of this argument, we needn’t provide a full explanation of the evolutionary process, it is enough to identify the specific traits that could have evolved, in order to refute the sceptic claim.

In that effort, let’s look at what would be required for Sasquatch to survive as a species in small pockets of wilderness, all the while remaining hidden from humanity.

Firstly, many sceptics have claimed that the survival of a large mammalian species would require a breeding population in excess of 100,000 individuals in order to avoid natural extinction.  This is true -give or take 10,000 individuals- however, it is only true if the species has a gestation rate, growth rate and life span that is similar to ours.  With all that is unknown about the biology of the Sasquatch, it is conceivable that the environment in which they have evolved, has favoured genes for extended lifespan.

Biologists and Geneticists today can find no reason why humans cannot evolve (even artificially) to a lifespan of more than 200 years, and if this is so in humans, why can it not be so, naturally, in Sasquatch?

When considered on its own, an evolutionary predisposition for super-long lifespan may seem unlikely, but when considered along side all other known Sasquatch characteristics: sturdy build, well suited for mountain/heavy forest survival, large size, omnivorous nature; all these things could be interpreted to compliment a longer lifespan than humanity.  It is entirely possible that Sasquatch have adapted their metabolic processes, to slow down growth and development and as such have greatly increased the time it takes them to reach breeding age.  From a certain perspective, there do seem to be some advantages to such genetic adaptation; right from the start we know that species which reach breeding age later in life, tend to have smaller populations, which, in an environment that is geographically limited or which has limited food resources, would be a natural measure of population control, helping to ensure genetic survival.

I suggest that the immense size of Sasquatch is a testament to such an evolutionary trait, whereby, they have the time to invest in growth during a prolonged adolescence, before they would naturally begin to invest those same resources in procreation.  The double effect of this characteristic might be that such a species would need a much smaller breeding pool in order to survive.

However, none of this shows how or why Sasquatch is able to remain undetected in these small pockets of wilderness, or does it?

If the above is true, or even plausible, then it could follow that any creature that must wait for an extended period of time before reaching breeding age would also develop a mechanism for ensuring that each worthy individual was able to reach that age in a healthy state.  Given the extended time frame, there would be a greater risk of the adolescent falling prey to various dangers in their environment (not the least of which would be predation by other species of hominid, i.e. us).  A natural progression of this logic might lead one to the idea that the Sasquatch evolved a heightened xenophobic propensity.  Simply put, they are naturally more fearful of members of other species, than other species might be of them.  This would serve to ensure that each individual is afforded the same opportunity to mate and rear offspring.

This is a fairly easy line of reasoning to follow, and can be further illustrated by looking at the historical conditions that could have led to such an evolutionary situation.

Among early primates, of which we know there were several variant species, each species evolution was dictated by two things.  1) The genetic make up they had to work with, and 2) the environment in which they needed to survive.  For any one species, the evolutionary outcome of their survival was born of the minute adaptations and selection of successful genes along every successive generation.  Those genes that were not successful did not make it into the next generation and therefore did not influence the adaptation of successive generations.  In each environment, various species used various and alternate traits to varying levels of success, resulting in the wide array of primates we see today.  While some experienced success in one direction, others when in another.

It is more than possible, and in my mind, is even likely that of the infinite evolutionary possibilities, the above scenario has played out in at least one species, and has led to the creature we now know as Sasquatch.

In summary, I believe I have shown, however clumsily, that Sasquatch could have adapted through evolution, to be long lived and shy, which might have the effect of allowing them to survive in the smaller pockets of wilderness that remain available.  This is not to say that they will be able to remain obscured in the face of ever encroaching human development and deforestation, and I suggest that if my theory is correct, then not only will sightings increase as we trespass on their territory, but those encounters will become increasingly violent as the Sasquatch are forced to coexist with other species beyond their natural comfort level.

The Solomon Island Giants and their ET Neighbours

Seldom does one come across such a sensational, yet neatly wound, string of fantasy as this.  I recently stumbled upon an article, which was a lengthy excerpt from a website, no longer operating, by a Mr.Marius Boirayon; Research Director of the Solomon Anthropological Expedition Trust Board Incorporated. (His story can be found here.)

Boirayon, an Australian born helicopter pilot/engineer, turned Gaudalean (by marriage to a Guadalcanal woman), has been outspoken about the “indigenous Giants” living throughout the Solomon Islands in the area of Papa New Guinea.  This self-proclaimed anthropologist has published several articles and at least one book on the subject of these so-called throwbacks to our ancient missing link hominid cousins, claiming that the dense tropical jungles on the many islands in the Solomon Island chain are home to a lasting civilization of Bigfoot type giants.

According to Marius Boirayon, the unique cultures that have developed on these islands are the direct result of social influences exerted on the indigenous people by these so-called giants, most notably as a result of the cannibalistic tendencies of these creatures.

The story begins with a cursory description of the beasts; tall, ranging between 10 and 25 feet to be precise, and possessing a strength that is unmatched in the animal kingdom.  They are said to have a variety of complexions, from completely covered in medium to long red, black or brown fur, to nearly hairless and human looking, were it not for their immense size.

Local folk lore is said to be chock full of stories, morals and warnings about the creatures, and has in fact dominated their habitation rituals to the point that the centre cores of each island are inhabited only by the giants, and no men go into the jungle.

A quick search on Google Earth reveals the real reason why they keep to the coastal regions on these islands, the most obvious being the density of the jungle and the mountainous nature of the terrain.

But I get ahead of myself to easily.

Boirayon details many accounts across several islands (and in this particular article it is often difficult to tell what island he’s talking about at any point) of locals reporting sightings of, interacting with and being fearful of encounters with their Giants.  According to Boirayon, the islands have been inhabited by these creatures for a millennium and thus, it is mankind that is encroaching on the Giants territory.

Though that analogy may give you the wrong impression, we’re not talking about animals here, not beasts but intelligent and spiritual hominids, distant relatives of humanity whose evolution has been dictated by the harsh jungle environment in which they have survived.

The story explains that these Giants reside in a vast cave network below and around the islands, a network that may connect the islands through undersea tunnels, and that there have been loosely defined borders to human and giant territories.

Boirayon gruesomely details the cannibalistic deaths of entire villages at the hands of “Killer Giants”, apparently a rogue faction of the creatures who deemed humans to be a suitable food source among the scarce animal stock available on the islands.  This apparently was put to an end at the close of a faction war, and a promise was made to a Gaudal clergyman by the Chief Giant, that no more human deaths would occur at the hands of Giants.

What strikes me about this accounting of such a bizarre history is that there is no evidence beyond the anecdotal testimony of random natives and this self-proclaimed anthropologist.  He points out opportunities that were lost to him, for undeclared reasons, to photograph the caves of the giants, to obtain artefacts of hair, tools and even structures, and even to have met and photographed the creatures in person; always the convenient excuse, to claim unforeseen circumstances in the face of scepticism.

Mr. Boirayon even attempts to play the allied pride card and tells of an unheard of Japanese retreat from the islands during WWI, due to the collective retaliation of the giants.

I find it distasteful that Mr. Boirayon would present such information, on a grand public scale, in the guise of fundraising for archaeological research, without so much as a single shred of evidence to back up his claim beyond a feeble “if you don’t believe me, go ask someone who lives on the island”.

It seems now that his reputation has suffered for the coverage of this story, and in an effort to support his earlier claims he has now offered a new story, or rather, an interwoven alternate to the Giants theory, which now includes a third species of humanoid living among the islands; this new faction of course, being aliens.

Boirayon now claims that the Solomon Islands are home to the largest network of underground extraterrestrial bases in the world.  He details locations to base entrances, makes reference to American officials who are aware of and cooperating with said aliens, and in a move that is reminiscent of Orson Wells, ‘War of the Worlds’, describes these beings as human-like with green scaly skin, much like a reptile.  To top it all off, he claims that their technology allows them to fly around the island without a craft of any kind and that they do so near nightly on Gaudacanal.

You can most likely glean from the tone of my accounting that I am somewhat sceptical of both lines of theory.  I cannot accept as true, something that has been presented in such a way as to sensationalise the growing military plight of an indigenous people.  It seems that Mr. Boirayon may have cause to draw commercial attention to the Solomon Islands, government strife, military occupation, civil disagreement…all of these things have plagued the area for decades, and global news attention would serve the political agenda of the people well.  However, all of these things also make it even less likely that there are ancient giant hairy men or alien bases in this area of the world.

Is the story true or false?  I honestly don’t have an answer, but in this case I hold to my scepticism and wait for someone more qualified than Marius Boirayon to investigate and make claim on this unbelievable story.

Bigfoot Moving into Southern Ontario

The following is a recent Bigfoot report out of Southern Ontario Canada, near Westport, which is approximately 50kms east of Toronto.

This report was originally posted on

Report # 24733 (Class A)
Submitted by witness on Sunday, September 14, 2008.

Daytime sighting behind a cabin near Westport

  • YEAR: 2008
  • SEASON: Summer
  • MONTH: August
  • DATE: 15
  • PROVINCE: Ontario
  • COUNTRY: Canada
  • NEAREST TOWN: Westport
  • NEAREST ROAD: County Road #10

OBSERVED: I had just woken up and it was a lovely sunny August morning – so I pulled up the blind and looked out of window on the 2nd floor at the back of our cabin.I said to my husband “there is a man walking through our woods”. He said “Let’s go and see who it is”.
Then it happened I suddenly felt really fearful and said “No”.

After that statement I have been replaying the sight like a full internal video – with plenty of questions in my mind (like there were no clothes) and am now glad to find your site.

As soon as I looked out I saw a large dark figure stride out of the forest and into a small grassed clearing about 40 to 50 metres from the back of our cabin. The figure was over 6 feet and was mostly medium brown – with different coloured brown patches and one patch of hay coloured yellow on its side that stood out in the sun. It walked with a fluid grace and in three long strides crossed the clearing. Then it turned its face towards me for a split second and it had a dark grayish flat face – which to me had no brown patches.

ALSO NOTICED: Later that morning we heard crashes and breaking twigs in the forest behind our cabin and later we had a rail come from the swamp area screaming and petrified in a way I have never heard before.



– a bright sunny morning, warm day
– the sun totally illuminated the grassy area where the observation was made

ENVIRONMENT: Our forest is a shield forest – lots of white pine, maples, oaks amount rock outcrops and small grassy areas – from the road the forest goes to a ridge which runs above a stream and a large swamp.


Follow-up investigation report by BFRO Investigator Todd Prescott:

Spoke with witness via the telephone for an hour and a half. Witness is a very experienced outdoors person with thousands of hours logged in the wilderness observing and studying birds as one of her major interests. The following details can be added to the report:

Witness and spouse have seasonally spent time in a log cabin since 1978. The cabin is fairly remote with only one other seasonal neighbor close by. Many miles of mixed forest consume the area. There is a small clearing (approx 10-15ft across) that can be seen from the side of the cabin. Just beyond the clearing is a ridge that slopes down to a creek. The creature was viewed moving from north to south across the aforementioned clearing. Witness was able to view the creature for approx six seconds in total. Creature stepped out of the treeline and into the sun-lit clearing. It strolled across to the other side in three steps. Witness lost sight of it for a few seconds as it re-entered the forest. The head and face reappeared, as it seemingly descended the slope leading to the creek, but the rest of the body remained hidden by trees and/or ridgeline. Unfortunately, sunlight was obscured where the creature reappeared, and consequentially, finer details of the face were not observable.

Additional details given of the creature and its behavior are as follows:

– legs were sturdy and well-built (athletic looking)
– neck was short
– creature looked healthy, strong and large (mesomorphic body-type)
– creature exuded a strong presence and walked gracefully with a purpose
– patchy light to dark brown, lush hair/fur covered its body
golden patch of hair/fur just above waist
– face was oval-shaped, flat and a darkish gray in color

Within an hour and thirty minutes of the sighting, loud banging/crashing sounds from the forest behind the cabin could be heard. The sounds lasted for about 20 minutes. At noon, a rail (a type of bird) frantically flew from the creek/ridge area towards the log cabin. According to the witness, the sounds the rail was emitting indicated that the bird was in distress.

Also of interest…

An oriole feeder had been left out (hooked on a sumac branch) a week prior to the sighting. It was placed at a height of approximately 7ft, hanging from a tree branch. When the couple (the witness and spouse) had arrived the day prior to the sighting, they found it odd that the oriole feeder was on the ground and empty of its sugar-water contents. It was as if something or someone had removed it.

As well, a large rock (between 20-30lbs approx) had been pulled up from where it had been deeply embedded and moved off the path/trail that leads down to the creek bed. Witness said, “It did not look like the work of a bear.”

On October 11, 2008 at approx 1am, witness awoke to the sound of swishing water. Water is collected at the back of their cabin in a large trough for washing and running water. The top of the trough sits at a height of 9ft with a heavy cover for protection. Witness opened her window blind and heard a set of loud ‘oooooo’ sounds just below and to the right of her. Then, to the left, she heard a very loud and powerful ‘OOOO’ sound. Her husband also heard the second ‘OOOO’, and later stated that it was like no other sound he’d heard before.

Witness felt that there were two creatures; possibly an order was given by the seemingly larger creature to the seemingly smaller creature. The bottom of the bedroom window is approx 5ft from the ground. The same water splashing sound was again heard later in the evening. With the second visit, the witness turned on the light at the window. No more sounds were heard thereafter.

Ontario BFRO Investigators, Todd Prescott and Chris Lau, camped overnight on witnesses’ property October 24, 2008. A thermal imager (Thermal Eye x200xp) and Bushnell IR Trailscout Pro Trailcam were deployed. Unfortunately, heavy rain interfered with the investigation and research.

Witnesses’ cabin is powered by solar power. As well, there is no indoor plumbing, but rather a composting toilet is used and the aforementioned water trough for washing and cleaning. A marshy lake and windy creek can be found approx 500 yards from the cabin down at the bottom of a steep ridge. Numerous animal runs/trails can be found throughout the area as well.

A second follow-up is scheduled for the Spring of 2009. Update to follow.


About BFRO Investigator Todd Prescott:

Todd Prescott, B.Ed, B.Mus, is a school teacher and professional musician. Todd attended the 2006 and 2008 B.C. Coastal Expeditions, the 2007 Ontario Expedition and the 2008 Pennsylvania Expedition. He has been researching the subject for over 20 years now. His research has taken him as far as Alaska to P.A., Northern Ontario to B.C., including a 2-week solo expedition throughout the Bella Coola (B.C.) region. Todd will be hosting the Ontario June 2009 Expedition.

Ardipithecus Ramidus; Did Ardi Open the Door for Bigfoot?

Since her discovery late in the field season of 1974, by French Geologist Maurice Taieb and American Anthropologist Donald Johansen, AL 288-1 has been the gold standard of evolutionary discussion regarding the origins of humanity on Earth.  You might not recognise her by the reference number given to her in the field, but I’m sure you’re more familiar with her nickname; ‘Lucy’.[1]

Australopithecus aferensis, a near complete fossilised skeleton representing what many scientists believed was the earliest example of our own evolutionary lineage ever found and they nicknamed her Lucy.  Lucy has been poked and proded, explored and examined and is generally understood as the closest specimine ever found linking modern humans to the early hominid species from whom the great apes decended.  It was Charles Darwin who first suggested that men decended from apes, to the indignation of many a royal and pious man of the time, and science has done a great deal of studious work since that day, most of which serves to confirm Darwin’s conclusions.

Lucy was found in an area of central Africa, Ethiopia to be pricise; at Hadar in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia’s Afar Depression, and by a consensis of all estimates, Lucy is 3.2 million years old.  It was believed that Lucy would remain the earliest hominid fossil to be found, and thus the oldest known example of hominid evolution in the fossil record, however a recent discovery very near to where Lucy was found has upset the apple cart of many an anthropologist the world over.

The fossilized skeletal remains of ‘Ardi’

Ardipithecus ramidus, nicknamed ‘Ardi’, is now the focus of much international scientific attention; found in the Ethiopian badlands near the Awash River in 1994 by an international team of acheologists, Ardi has been estimated (through radiometric dating) to be more than 4.4 million years old.[2]

You, as many others, are probably wondering why this is so significant, and though it isn’t immediately apparent, the importance of this discovery is such that it not only confirms Darwin’s Evolutionary theories to be dead on correct, but it means that our own lineage goes back much further into the Earth’s history than ever thought before.  For you see, Lucy, and her elder partner Ardi are the oldest examples of bipedal hominids.

Before we get to the nuts and bolts of why bipedal locomotion is so important to the evolutionary discussion of man, lets bring those numbers into perspective.  Figure 1 (below) is a graphic representation of the ages of Lucy and Ardi, as well as the Bering Migration of prehistoric man from northern Europe to North America some 25,000 years ago (as a median estimation based on the many migration theories available), and the approximate commencement of the modern Iron Age some 3,200 (to 5000) years ago.  We are currently in the 2nd millenia of the new Roman calendar, prior to the start of that calendar, Ardi celebrated 4000 millenia, though I suspect there may have been less noise and ruccus in her day.


Figure 1

As is plain to see, the current incarnation of mankind is but a blip on the scope of hominid life on the planet.  A great deal more than four and a half million years of evolution has culminated in the social and technological marvel that is modern man; big brains, opposable thumbs and every other so-called unique human trait that is heralded as the thing that sets us apart from the beasts of our world.

But, among all those marvels of human ingenuity, the one trait that truly does set us apart from all other hominid species on Earth is bipedal locomotion; in other words, it’s the ability to walk on our own two feet that makes us unique.

Dr. Owen Lovejoy with recplicas of 'Ardi's' pelvic bones

Dr. Owen Lovejoy with recplicas of ‘Ardi’s’ pelvic bones

Humans are the only mega-fauna mammal on the planet to use bipedal locomotion; sure some apes are known to walk on two legs, occasionally, and so are various species of bear, but none other than humans make a career out of it.  Anthropology circles present a surprisingly clear picture of why early hominids developed a tendency to walk on two, instead of four limbs, all of it revolving around successful mating.  At some point in our distant past, it became advantageous for our ancestors to walk on two legs, which would have been a serious detriment to our collective ability to out run predators.  What it would have done was left our prehensile arms free to gather and carry much larger amounts of food and other resources back to a central den or nest, and thus utilising the various advantages of social groups for survival.

So, all is well and good for our learned scientists and theologians to ponder what Ardi and her younger cousin Lucy mean to our understanding of human history and development, but another thing these discoveries do as a sort of strange side effect, is open up possibilities for other theories of a cryptozoological nature.

4.4 Million years of evolution along a single branch of the biological tree of life.  Four thousand millennia of practise and development and adaptation, and look how far we’ve come.  Though let’s consider that for a moment; in that same 4 million years, countless species of mammal, amphibian, avian, and invertebrate have evolved, survived, extinguished or flourished among the influences and changes of nature.  On other branches of this tree of life there are multiple examples of various species, even on our own branch (so-to-speak) there are -lesser apes and great apes- 22 different species of ape.  Each species has its own specific characteristics and genetic make up, but each species is descended from the same ancient parent species as us…so why the wide variation in apes, and no variation in humans at all?[3]

Each hominid fossil that’s discovered, is inevitably labelled a direct evolutionary descendent of ours, or of the apes.  If you were to look at the hominid branch on that tree of life, essentially there would be two dissecting lines, one representing us and one representing the apes.  Though the ape’s line would show a vast number of its own intersecting lines, or divergent paths of evolution resulting in variant species of ape; but on our line there are far fewer deviations (if any).

Why were we humans the only species on the planet to develop bipedal locomotion?  Anthropologically speaking, the development of bipedal locomotion was the single most beneficial trait of our ancestors, leading to all of our current biological advantages, (i.e. big brain, prehensile dexterity, language etc.) which would seem to suggest that any other species which underwent the same bipedal development had an equal chance of achieving the same success, yet none did.

Or did they?

Are the various globally consistent wild-man legends evidence of a second species of hominid that developed along side mankind?

The one major barrier to almost all paleo-anthropological research is the unfortunate fact that the biological remains of ancient species rarely survive long enough to be studied.  Our big brains, you could say, are the enemy of anthropology, in that our evolutionary ancestors were smart enough to not get caught in lava flows, or mud slides or any of the other such environmental catastrophes which normally provide science with the fossils from which these conclusions are drawn.  So how, exactly, would we know if another species of hominid had developed (whether it survived for long or not)?  The simple answer is that those cousins of ours would live on in story and legend.

Sounding familiar yet?

When put into perspective, along that four and a half million year journey from Ethiopia to UC Berkley’s Anthropology lab, there was well more than enough time and opportunity for such a species to develop, and for many years, scientists postulated that a large portion of the wild-man legends sprang from early conflicts between Homo-erectus and Cro-Magnon species on the plains of Africa and southern Europe, essentially culminating in an early cultural ethos about the dangers of the other species or tribes.  But the evolution of culture is a much faster process than the evolution of biology.

The underlying point, as transparent as it is, is that in nature, opportunity usually equals advantage, and advantage equals survival, and ultimately, survival equals evolution.

All that would have been necessary for a creature, whether it be called a wild-man, Sasquatch, Bigfoot, or even Woodwose, to evolve and exists along side humanity, is opportunity.  It seems that such opportunity existed in abundance; so maybe the question should not be ‘what if’, but moreover, ‘why not’?

[1] See:

[2] See: and

[3] To be clear, anthropology does not see race as an evolutionary variation, all humans are of the same species.